~ Welcome to SARAH HICKEY's wiki ~





Things turn out best for people who make the best out of the way things turn out.







bioooo.jpg





Homework Post #1 ~ Anton van Leeuwenhoek
Leeuwenhoek.jpgLeeuwenhoek.jpgLeeuwenhoek.jpg
Even though Anton van Leeuwenhoek didn't technically invent the microscope, he did have a lot to do with it evolving into something greater. Robert Hooke was the inventor of the microscope but it could only magnify the object by twenty or thirty times. Since Leeuwenhoek had worked with glass, and grinding lenses, he was able to create a microscope that could magnify the image up to two hundred times. With that done, it led to more findings.
Leeuwenhoek was the first to discover bacteria, free-living and parasitic microscopic protists, sperm cells, blood cells, microscopic nematodes and rotifers, and many more. Just because he wasn't the first to discover the microscope doesn't mean that he didn't make a great contribution to science and biology. We know so much more about all these things due to his and his love of knowledge and finding new things. It's not just that he researched all these things; it's that he recorded them for us to grow and develop from it.
I don't believe that he should be credited with the invention of the microscope, because he didn't invent the microscope. It's pretty much common sense to me. If people know who invented the microscope (Hooke) then he should receive the credit for the invention. Leeuwenhoek did improve the microscope greatly, but you don't give credit to ketchup (catsup) to Heinz; it should be given to the Indonesian and Asian culture. It's just like the microscope; the inventor should get the credit for the invention.
  • My work, which I've done for a long time, was not pursued in order to gain the praise I now enjoy, but chiefly from a craving after knowledge, which I notice resides in me more than in most other men. - Anton van Leeuwenhoek

Ford, B. J. 1991. The Leeuwenhoek Legacy. Biopress, Bristol, and Farrand
Press, London. <http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/history/leeuwenhoek.html>



Homework Post #2 ~ Apoptosis

apopt2.gifapopt2.gifapopt2.gif





apoptosis3.jpg
Organsism are always replacing cells. A human body replaces about a million cells every second. Apoptosis (cell suicide) is when programmed cell death occurs in multicelular organisms. It does this because it's programmed to. It's very important in the replacement of cells in any organism by breaking down, dissolving or getting rid of unwanted cells. By having too much or too little of apoptosis, can cause diseases such as cancer and leukemia. If it works very well, like better/more than it should, then there's gonna be tissu damage.

How does it happen? Well enzymes breakdown the main parts of the cell and the cell shrinks. The chromatin in the nucleus break down and the nucleus will get smaller aswell. By the end, the cell is shrunk to a small size where the enzymes breakdown the key parts of the cell from the inside and the cell shrinks. The cell shrinks even more and then phagocytic cell takes care of the dead cell remaining.


"Definition of Apoptosis." MedicineNet (1996-2011 ): n. pag. Web. 3 Mar 2011.
<http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=11287>.



Post #1 ~ Peanut Butter
pbutter.jpg
Mmmm, Peanut Butter and Jelly. Peanut Butter is not just a yummy snack made from ground dry roasted peanuts, it can also keep us healthy. Peanut butter can protect against a high risk of cardiovascular disease due to high levels of monounsaturated fats. It also provides protein, vitamins B3 and E, magnesium, folate, dietary fiber and arginine. Peanut butter contains a decently high quantity of dietary fiber which helps in regulating blood cholesterol and blood sugar levels. Dietary fiber has been known to reduce the risk of colo-rectal cancer and atherosclerosis.

According to the Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, the niacin contained in peanuts provides protection against Alzheimer's disease.

It’s not just a yummy treat now, is it?


"Peanut Butter." Wikipedia (2011): n. pag. Web. 12 Mar 2011. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peanut_butter.




Post #2 ~ Mike the Headless Chicken
mike_the_headless_chicken.jpg
When killing a chicken for us to eat, they chop off the chicken's head. That's what they did for this Wyandotte chicken in 1945, except the chicken didn't die. After the chicken's head was cut off, it lived for 18 more months. I can understand if it was a couple of hours, but no, this was months. What had happened was the axe missed the jugular vein, leaving one ear and most of the brain stem intact. This chicken had made world recods and even had tours before his death in 1947.

How did he survive, without a head for so long? Like I said, the axe had missed the carotid artery and a clot had prevented Mike (the chicken) from bleeding to death. Even though most of his head was gone, a lot of his brain stem and one ear was left. Since the basic functions like heart-rate and breath are controlled by the brain stem, Mike was able to live.

Now that's freaky chicken.


"Mike the Headless Chicken." (2008): n. pag. Web. 22 Apr 2011. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mike_the_Headless_Chicken .





Post #3 ~ Conjoined Twins

conjoined-twins.jpg
It's very rare to have a set of conjoined twins, where their organs are fused together, having a very low survival rate. It occurs once in every 200,000 births, and between forty and sixty percent are still borns, and thirty five percent only last one day. Wich leaves the survival rate between five and twenty five percent.

Conjoined twins more than likely identical, and probably the same sex. What happens is that they develop from the same fertilized egg and they share the same amniotic cavity and placenta. A woman only produces one egg that starts to seperate after fertilization, the embryo starts to split into twins in the first couple of weeks but stops before it's complete. The semi seperated egg develops into a conjoined fetus.

To seperate conjoined twins is a hard thing to do. It trakes time and presicion and it's very risky business. Depending on what parts of the body are conjoined, the sucess rate varies. If it's from the hip, there's a sixty eight percent survival rate. Where as there are no known surviivors when they're attached by the heart. Even if the twins survive, they would need to undergo therapy and rehabilitation because of the malformation of their spines.

Wouldn't it be weird?

"Conjoined Twins ." 8 January 2010: n. pag. Web. 2 May 2011. http://www.umm.edu/conjoined_twins/facts.htm.



Post #4 ~ Goose Bumps

goose_bumps.jpgAre you cold? Are you scared? Goose Bumps are a temporary change in the skin. The stimulus causes a nerve discharge from the sympathetic nervous system. It causes the contraction of little muscles called arrectores pilorum. This elevates the hair follicles above the skin which creates bumps. Why do we get goose bumps? Like i said before, you may be scared or cold, and even sexual arousal. but there's no real reason as to why humans need them. Some biologists believe that they've evolved from a reaction which the heart rate increases that send the heart racing while blood rushes to the muscles/skin which gives it more than enough oxygen.

Tiny litte mountains all over your body.

MedicineNet, . "Goose Bumps ." 7/23/2002: n. pag. Web. 2 May 2011. http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=6842.






Post #5 ~ Albinism

Albinism.jpgAlbinism is inherited and it's when the genes do not make the usual amount of melanin. They are people who have little to no pigment in their eyes, their skin or their hair. A myth about Albinism is that they have red eyes, even though with some types of albinism there's red/violet pigment in them, the majority of eyes are actually blue. Albinism causes vision problems, usually having low vision, and in some cases some are even considered legally blind. The vision difficulties is a result of abnormal development of the retina and abnormal patterns of nerve connections between the eye and the brain. A problem that comes with this, is that your skin is easily damaged due to the sun, so they're at a higher risk to skin cancers. People with albinsm are known to feel more isolated just because they feel different then others and because there are people that are misunderstood of this condition.

We are all the same on the inside, and that's what matters.

NOAH, . "What is Albinism?." National Organization for Albinism and Hypopigmentation 2002: n. pag. Web. 8 May 2011. http://www.albinism.org/publications/what_is_albinism.html.



Post #6 ~ Lion's Mane Jellyfish

lion's_mane_jellyfish.jpgLion's Mane Jellyfish, also known as Cyanea capillata, is a jellyfish that isn't as dangerous as it's made out to be. It's sting doesn't cause death to us, just a sting that goes along with a itchy rash and a burning sensation. The toxins from being stung by a this jellyfish may cause an allergic reaction, but the sting can be treated with vinegar. These cnidarians live in the oddest of conditions. They live in the freezing cold waters of the Artic Ocean and the Northern Pacific Ocean in the coldest months of the year. It isn't just one of the biggest jellyfishes out there, it's also one of the biggest animals too. One that was found in Massachusetts Bay in 1870 was over 7 feet in diameter and its tentacles were longer than 120 feet in length. The Artic Lion's Mane jellyfis can have a bell that's 8 feet in diameter and the tentacles being 150 feet long. Which is longer that a blue whale.

It doesn't really look like a lion's mane.


"Lion's Mane Jellyfish." Pattern Media (2001): n. pag. Web. 17 May 2011. http://www.jellyfishfacts.net/lions-mane-jellyfish.html



Post #7 ~ Heterochromia

cat-with-2-different-color-eyes.pngHeterocromia is having two different colored eyes. Your eye color depends on the amount of pigment you have in your eyes. Having little to no pigment in your eyes would give you blue eyes, having some pigment in your eyes would give you green eyes and having tones of pigment would leave you with brown eyes. This is determined by genes called melanocytes. In most cases, you'd have one eye being blue because of the lack of pigment in one eye. Another way to have different colored eyes are mosaicism and chimerism. These are when some cells in the body have one type of DNA and other cells have another type.

One of a kind.


Starr, Barry. "Having Twi Different Colored Eyes." (2007): n. pag. Web. 3 June 2011. http://www.suite101.com/content/having-two-different-colored-eyes-a37149.










Post #8 ~ Dandelions

dandelion.jpgThey grow on our lawns and we hate them, but they aren't just weeds. They have a high source of vitamins A, B complex, C, and D, as well as minerals such as iron, potassium, and zinc. Even though as a young one, tasting the dadelions on my hands and regretting ever putting my fingers in my mouth, people still use the leaves to add flavor to salads, sandwiches, and teas. It's also used in medicine. Native Americans used the roots to treat liver disease, swelling, upset stomach, skin problems and heart burn. The Chinese used them to treat breast problems, digestive disorders and appendicitis.

Thought they were just weeds, didn't you?




University of Maryland Medical Center, . "Dandelion." N.p., 2011. Web. 4 June 2011. http://www.umm.edu/altmed/articles/dandelion-000236.htm.









Post #9 ~ Sleep Talking

sleep_talking.jpgI've always been told that I talk in my sleep so I decided to do a wiki post on it. The medical term for talking in your sleep is somniloquy. Most of the time when sleep talking, someone that is listening won't be able to understand what you're saying because it's mostly mumbles. It's something that's very common, about 50% of children will and about 5% of adults. This is also something that can run in families. There isn't really anything you can do to treat somniloquy or to stop it completely, but it's not something that's harmful, unless you're partner is getting irretated.

I once talked french in my sleep.

Kuhlmann, David. "Sleep Education." (2007): n. pag. Web. 8 Jun 2011. http://yoursleep.aasmnet.org/disorder.aspx?id=16.





Post #10 ~ Panic Attacks

panic_attack.jpgThe other night at work, it was super bust and I was stressing out a lot to keep everything on track when my chest started hurting. This had happened to me before a few months previous, but the doctors didn't know exactly what was wrong with me. When I went to the hospital this time (until 3am), they told me that it could have been a panic attack, which led me to doing my post on that.

Panic Attacks could be a symptom from an anxiety disorder. This is a serious problem and most people that do get panic attacks receive their first one between ages 15-19 (and i'm like 17). It also occurs twice as likely in women than in me (guess what? I'm a girl). The symptoms are a racing heartbeat, chest pain, dizziness, difficulty breathing, hot flashes and much more similar things. It's also known that if you have one attack, you're bound to have another one as well.

Since I've already had two, guess what I get to look forward to.

"Panic Attacks." MedicineNet (2011): n. pag. Web. 8 Jun 2011. http://www.medicinenet.com/panic_disorder/article.htm.