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Homework Posts

Post #1 - Anton Van Leeuwenhoek
AntonScreen_shot_2011-03-13_at_11.02.59_AM.png van Leeuwenhoek was a tradesman of Holland whowas destined forno future in the scientific world, but he ended up doing just that. With little education, his endless curiosity got the best of him and he started to explore the great world of biology. It was said that Leeuwenhoek made some of the most important discoveries in the history of biology. His great mind of his time was used to do many remarkable things. Around 1668, he started to grind lenses and make simple microscopes, and from there, observe many different things. Even though he figured out and contributed so much to the biological world, he was not the initial inventor of the microscope. Many give him such credit, but in reality, it was not he who made this discovery. A discovery is finding out or ascertaining something previously unknown or unrecognized. Leeuwenhoek had previously seen a copy of Robert Hooke’s book Micrographia, which led him to make his own discoveries and take Hooke’s very basic microscope, therefore, he should not be given credit for creating the microscope. However, Leeuwenhoek modified the impractical scope, enabling himself to view the objects over 200 times larger than the previous 20 or 30 times enlarged.

Leeuwenhoek contributed so much to the field of science that we may be here all day reviewing all the great works he did. But to save some time, I will just outline a few of the things he accomplished on his time on this earth. Aside from all the improvements he made to the microscope, such as adding features like better lighting, which gave a better, clearer images, he was the man who first discovered bacteria, free-living and parasitic microscopic protists, sperm cells, blood cells, microscopic nematodes and rotifers, and so much more. Today most know him as the scientist who discovered cells, but he also observed things like bee stings, as well as the plaque on teeth. His work was printed in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, and has been reprinted numerous times to share with others.

"...by diligence and tireless labour he made with his own hand certain most excellent lenses, with the aid of which he discovered many secrets of Nature, now famous throughout the whole philosophical World."

Ford, B. J. 1991 The Leeuwenhoek Legacy. Biopress, Bristol, and Farrand Press, London.<http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/history/leeuwenhoek.html>

Posted On: February /11

Post #2 - Apoptosis

apoptosis.jpgApoptosis is a natural thing that occurs in the human body that plays a crucial role in developing and maintaining health. This happens by the elimination of old, unnecessary and unhealthy cells. This process is happening constantly - the old cells are being replaced perhaps as much as a million cells per second.

There are two ways a cell may die - it is killed by injury, such as mechanical damage, or it is induced to commit suicide, for example, the cell begins to shrink. Cells commit suicide for a couple reasons, the first being that it needs to die for the organism to continue to develop properly, similar to mitosis. The second reason is because it needs to destroy the cells that threaten the integrity of the organism. For example, if a cell may be infected with a virus or may be cancerous, the cell must die for the organism to remain healthy.
Apoptosis is a “
programmed cell death” that refers to the structural changes a cell goes through. Too little or too much apoptosis plays a role in many diseases, but without this process we would not survive.

Medicine Net. (2003, August 01). Definition of apoptosis. Retrieved from <http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=11287>
Author Unknown. (2011, February 7). Apoptosis. Retrieved from <http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/A/Apoptosis.html>
Posted On: March 13/11

Individual Posts

Post # 1 - "Brain Freezes"

ice-cream-cones.jpgClose your eyes. Picture this. Hey! You didn’t close your eyes; you’re still reading! Okay, okay, just pretend your eyes are closed. It’s summer. The sun is beating on your face, sending beads of sweat down your forehead. You lift a cold spoon to your lips and begin to taste the “utterly divine” ice cream on your tongue. As you shovel it into your mouth, you suddenly get an excruciating pain shooting everywhere in your head making your eyeballs feel like they’re popping out. Yes, you’ve guessed it, a brain freeze, or as I like to call it, “ice cream headache.”
Why does this happen?
When a cold food or drink, some of this comes into contact with the roof of the mouth, known as the hard palate. Behind this hard palate are multiple nerves, which acts like a protective thermostat. The extremely sensitive, main nerve is the sphenopalatine nerve, which reacts to abrupt changes in temperature. A warning is instantly sent out to the other nerves when the frozen treat or beverage causes this nerve to cool down. What has really happened is that the brain has been told that a major freeze is coming, so be prepared!
Your brain does not literally freeze, however, the blood vessels surrounding the brain suddenly overreact to the cold stimuli, usually by shrinking. It is suggested that the pain is not necessarily triggered by the dilation of the blood vessels, but by the flow of warm blood which forces the vessels open again.
The result?
A very, very painful headache that makes one cringe trying to bear the “freeze”.

How long does it last?
Typically, this headache will last from about thirty seconds to two minutes, unlike regular headac
hes or migraines, thank goodness!

Can you stop the pain?
The best thing to do is press your tongue on the roof of your mouth, reheating the hard palate, and stopping the pain faster. Or you can close your eyes; wrinkle your forehead and scream. But only a little.

Pollick , Micheal, & Harris, Bronwyn. (2011, March 07). What causes brain freeze?. <Retrieved from http://www.wisegeek.com/what-causes-brain-freeze.htm>

Posted On: March 22/11

Post # 2 - Synchronous Menstruation

McClintock_effect-4.jpgWomen probably observed synchronized menstrual cycles since the first time someone needed to borrow a tampon or pad. However, it wasn’t until 1970 that the first formal investigation was done. Why does this happen? The answer deals with humans as a species and the need to reproduce effectively, and also with how bodies are designed to work to accomplish this.

A college student who just finished her junior year at Wellesley, Martha McClintock, was attending a conference where it was mentioned that rats in captivity together tended to ovulate simultaneously. This situation reminded her of the pattern she observed amongst her dorm mates. This quickly became the thesis for her senior project.

Martha McClintock's work attracted much more attention than the average undergraduate research project. She proposed that pheromones, which are chemicals released to communicate with other individuals, were the motivation for the synchronization of ovulatory cycles. Her initial hypothesis was that roommates' cycles would have the highest interconnection, because they had the strongest shared air space. However, the studies she did showed that after 3 to 4 months together, good friends had the closest timing.

There are so many different factors that have an impact on the menstrual cycle – for example, eating habits, like what types of food one eats and the amount of calories consumed, lifestyle choices, the level of activity the body does, etc. So, the closer you and the other female are, the greater the chance is of becoming in sync. For example, if two females live and/or work together, and eat most of the same meals and exercise regularly, there is a great chance that after some time, they will become within a few days of having the same cycle, or so the theory persists.

Humans are a social species – they gather in groups for protection, for companionship, and for survival. Humans also all have hormones that segregate through the skin. Hormones convey many different, important messages, for example, they tell whether someone is healthy or sick, male or female, happy or unhappy. Just as someone can discover things about themselves through hormones, someone else’s hormones can also affect their body and their own hormone production. What happens is, women produce hormones during their fertile period that can jumpstart other women’s bodies into being fertile as well. This is why today it can take women a few months to get in sync.

These are not all known facts, just many theories. Because of all the factors that contribute to one’s menstrual cycle, we may never know if women’s synchronized cycles are just flukes or if there really is reasoning behind it all. So, girls, try to notice if someone close to you is “in sync,” and boys, watch out that the women in your life are not menstruating at the same time… that could be rough.

Braha, J. (2008, January 04). Synchronized cycles. Retrieved from http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/exchange/node/1724
Author Unknown. (2009, January 14). Why do women's menstrual cycles get in sync? Retrieved from http://factoidz.com/why-do-womens-menstrual-cycles-get-in-sync/

Posted On: April 10, 2011

Post # 3 Hypertrichosis

A rare disease, hypertrichosis, is also known as werewolf syndrome. This is when tween girls become so obsessed with the totally cute Jacob Black – the almost hairless, flawless werewolf, and get labeled with having WEREWOLF SYNDROME.

So that may not be true, in fact, it is quite the opposite. Hypertrichosis is a condition characterized by excessive and widespread body hair that is usually genetic in origin. It can affect most of the torso and limbs symmetrically, or can be localized, only affecting a small area or location. For the most part, the whole body is covered with hair except the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet.

This disorder was first discovered in 1648 when an entire family had werewolf syndrome - a man, two daughters, his son and his grandchild. So, this not only affects men, but also women. Babies may be born with this syndrome, or individuals may acquire it later on in life. When present at birth, it's the result of the fine, soft hair that covers a fetus continuing to grow, instead of shedding before birth as it normally does. Why this happens is thought to be because of an inherited genetic disorder or because of spontaneous mutation. However, often times it develops because of a factor other than genetics, such as the body reacting to certain medications or anabolic steroids. Other cases are suggested to be caused from conditions such as advanced-stage HIV or a hormone imbalance.

Oddly enough, hypertrichosis is usually always associated with teeth defects and excess gum growth and the individuals afflicted are said to have soft, smooth and gentle voices.
Werewolf syndrome is very rare - only affecting 1 in 340 million people. Consequently, these wolf-men (or women) are stuck with this for their entire lives, as there is no known cure. They are faced with the same option as everyone else with unwanted hair – shaving, waxing and electrolysis.

Tithonus Pednaud, J. (2008). Werewolf Syndrome – Hypertrichosis. Retrieved from <http://thehumanmarvels.com/?p=105>
eHow Contributor. (2011, February 28). How to explain werewolf syndrome. Retrieved from <http://www.ehow.com/how_2090171_explain-werewolf-syndrome.html>

Posted On: April 16, 2011

Post # 4 - Blushing
Better to blush once than pale a hundred times.
– Serbian Proverb

What is blushing? Blushing is a perfectly natural thing. It seems to be nature's way of disclosing our true feelings about a situation. Feelings that we feel could have waited to be showed when we are not in front of a huge crowd. Too bad it isn’t our choice whether or not to become as red as a tomato.

What causes someone to blush? When someone blushes, it is generally because they are embarrassed or in an anxious/stressful moment. This same natural reaction occurs when someone is in a defensive mode or in a situation that requires quickness to avoid danger. The adrenaline that flows through the system at these times adds to the tendency to blush.

How does blushing happen? There are many more small blood vessels in the face than any other part of the body. These vessels are usually bigger than other tiny vessels located in the human body, therefore, since they are near the surface of the face, whenever the vessels fill with more blood than normal, they begin to dilate, and colors ranging from light pink to dark red is added to the face as a result of the increase of blood flow.

Lets take a more detailed look at this process: Blushing begins with an emotion, generally associated with self-consciousness. Adrenaline is produced by our adrenaline glands and binds to the surface of responsive cells. Adenylyl cyclase, an enzyme, is activated, and causes the level of cyclic AMP, a messenger molecule that transmits the adrenaline signal within the cell, to increase. Because of this increase in cyclic AMP, the blood vessels are caused to dilate directly.

Studies have shown that blushing is related to self-consciousness, age, social factors and gender. Women tend to blush more than men – especially when being complemented. However, beyond the point of normal blushing, some people experience hyperhidrosis, which is excessive sweating, that comes along with blushing. This can be treated with surgery.

So, the next time you feel your cheeks getting hot, just remember that this is a natural thing that happens to everybody, and you have no control over it. Just try to relax and shake it off, or shall I say cool it off?

Author Unknown. (2010). Why do people blush? Retrieved from http://www.thegeminigeek.com/why-do-people-blush/
Author Unknown. (2006, August). Why do we blush? Retrieved from http://www.thercg.org/youth/odds/0402-wdwb.html

Posted On: May 3, 2011

Post # 5 - Twins With Different Skin Colors

In 2006, a pair of British twin girls were born with different skin colors – one black and one white.

It was a shock when I realized that my twins were two different colors.”twins1.jpg
- Kylie Hodgson, 19 years old.

Kylie and her partner, Remi Horder, both have mixed-race parents, white mothers and black fathers. Usually, the characteristics of the parents are blended, but in this much more rare case, they had single pairing produced twins with distinctly different physical attributes. It is speculated that a sperm containing all-white genes fused with an egg of all -white genes, and a sperm containing all-black genes fused with an egg of all-black genes to produce these fraternal twins.

How does that happen?

Women of mixed race = eggs with genes for black and white skin.
Man of mixed race = sperm with a variety of genes.
Eggs + Sperm = a baby of mixed race.

Very occasionally: egg/sperm = genes for only one skin color.

For a mixed race couple, odds of either of these scenarios is around 1 in 100. However, both of these scenarios can occur at the same time if the woman conceives two non-identical twins. In this case, there is another 1 in 100 chance.

For this to happen: 2 eggs + 2 sperm being fertilized at the same time, also has odds of 1 in 100.

In this situation, a sperm coding for all-white genes fused with a similar egg and a sperm coding for all-black genes also fused with a similar egg, and two babies of dramatically different skin colors will be born! The odds of this happening are 100 x 100 x 100 – one in a million.

Mikkelson, B & D. (2006, March 01). Mixed twins. Retrieved from http://www.snopes.com/photos/people/mixedtwins.asp

Posted On: May 8, 2011

Post # 6 - Banana Spider

banana_spider.jpgI recently heard a story about a Fredericton man who got bit by a spider. This spider was found in his banana that he bought at a gas station, and he didn’t notice it until it had already sunk its teeth in his nose. He did not seek medical attention until the next morning, and as I read more about this type of spider, I am continually amazed by the fact this harmful creature did not kill him.

Ironically, this spider is called the banana spider, or more scientifically, the Brazilian Wandering Spider, because it originates from Brazil. These deadly spiders can survive long transport from many exotic places around the world, and take-up residence in your friendly local grocery store.

These hairy, eight-eyed spiders with four to five inch legs wander the jungle floor looking for insects to eat. They also hide in the leaves of bananas where they feed off the insects found around them. The full-grown spiders eat large insects, small mice and lizards. They move quickly and one of their most distinctive features is a red jaw that they display when angered. They are responsible for more human deaths than any other spider, and their bite can kill a person within 25 minutes.

The Phoneutria species of the Wandering Spiders is considered vicious and deadly. The venom has a potent neurotoxin that acts on the nervous system. The bite is excruciatingly painful due to a high concentration of serotonin and a highly active venom. Symptoms include immediate pain, cold sweats and heart irregularities.

If this spider is so deadly, then why didn’t this Fredericton man die? Especially taking into consideration that he didn’t seek medical attention for more than 12 hours. The answer: it was only a baby spider – there was a small nest embedded into the peeling of his banana, and this one made it alive after the long journey from Brazil. This spider did not have enough venom to kill, but he became very swollen. It took him nearly a month to recover.

Everyone always thinks that this would never happen to him or her, but, even in a small city like Fredericton, it can! So, check your fruit for this banana spider and never eat it in the dark!

Thorton, M. (2009, March 18). World's Deadliest Spider: Brazilian Wandering Spider, Banana Spider. Retrieved from http://www.rightpundits.com/?p=3506

Posted On: May 7/11

Post # 7 - Arctic Lion's Mane

Jellyfish have been on this planet a very long time – they have been traced back to living more than 650 million years ago. The amazing thing about these animals is that they are composed of 90-95% water! This means they have no bones, no cartilage, no heart/blood, and no brain. Even though jellyfish seem to be so simple, they still do many complex things.jellyfish.jpg

As I mentioned, jellyfish don’t have a brain, but they can still detect touch, light and gravity through a nerve net of specialized cells. This doesn’t seem like it could be possible for an animal with no eyes, but especially one with no brain!

An interesting type of jellyfish, Cyanea capillata, is also known as the Arctic Lion’s mane. The Arctic Lion’s mane jellyfish is one of the longest known animals. The largest recorded specimen had a bell (body) with a diameter of 2.3 m and the tentacles reached 36.5 m. This jelly is a predator that eats fish, plankton and even other jellyfish. It stalks, pursues, catches, kills and consumes its prey. Although, it usually doesn’t have to do much hunting and killing because this jelly, for the most part, has its food delivered. Typically what happens is an unsuspecting fish with swim into the nearly invisible tentacles. Their long, stringy tentacles are lined with cnidocytes, and within those cells are millions of specialized cells called nematocysts. When the fish makes contact with the jellies tentacles, it is immediately injected with poisonous darts that is a paralyzing venom. Then, the jelly can eat it whenever it feels like it. What a life!

If a human were to get stung by this animal, it could be fatal. It all depends on how much poison had been absorbed by the body. What could happen if a person did get stung would be paralysis of the breathing muscles, so the victim would die from suffocation. But, don’t worry, this big guy is found in frigid, Arctic waters, way, deep down. So don’t expect to see him next time you go to the beach.

Author Unknown. (2009, November). Giant jellyfish..arctic lion's mane. Retrieved from http://www.extremescience.com/zoom/index.php/life-in-the-deep-ocean/60-giant-jellyfish

Post # 8 - Chiari Malformation

A 3-year-old boy from Florida, Rhett Lamb is often very irritable. Saying goodnight to his mom and dad was impossible. This is because he stayed awake 24 hours a day.

"His body would give out but his mind wouldn't; he'd still be awake," said Rhett's mom, Shannon Lamb.boy.jpg

His condition baffled doctors – they could not figure out why this young boy could not sleep. His lack of sleep had a painful toll on him and his family. He had very bad behavior and would bite, hit and head butt. He once gave his mother a black eye when throwing a fit. He was in a bad mood all the time and couldn’t play or interact with anyone, especially other children.

His parents watched him each day, and even had to take clock shifts and rearrange their work schedules to look over his every move.

Rhett's dad David Lamb said, "It was like he was losing his mind and there was nothing we could do to help him."

After countless visits to many doctors, there was a diagnosis – chiari malformation. This is an extremely rare condition where the brain is squeeze into the spinal column. The brain stem is squeezed, compressed and strangled, and that is where all the functions that control sleep, speech, cranial nerves, circulatory system and even breathing system are.

The solution was surgery on the brain stem. An incision was made at the base of Rhett's skull to the top of his neck and the bone around the brain stem and spinal cord was removed to produce more space.

Doctors said that there is a 50-50 chance that the sleep will improve, and eight months after the surgery, statistics were on their side. Rhett slept all night for the first time in his life. Although, he was functioning at the level of an 18-month-old after the surgery, only a few months later he was almost completely caught up with other children his age. This is something the Lambs thought would never happen and are so thankful that everything has worked out okay.

Canning, A., & O'Keefe, M. (2008, May 10). Medical mystery: the boy who couldn't sleep. Retrieved from http://abcnews.go.com/GMA/Sleep/medical-mystery-boy-sleep/story?id=4828035
Canning, A., & Wild, A. (2009, January 23). Mystery of sleepless boy solved. Retrieved from http://abcnews.go.com/GMA/OnCall/story?id=6711810&page=1

Posted On: May 31/11

Post # 9 - Hyperthymestic Syndrome

Never forgetting – now, that would be very useful at times, such as when studying for a biology exam or memorizing a phone number.However, remembering everything could also become an annoyance and maybe even haunting when one is constantly being reminded of traumatic events. Researchers at UC Irvine first identified the first case of a relatively new syndrome called “hyperthymestic syndrome” based on the Greek word thymesis for “remembering” and hyper, meaning “more than normal.” The individual diagnosed was a woman with the ability to perfectly and instantly recall details of her past.
This case is the first of its kind to be recorded and written in scientific literature and could open new fields of research in the study of learning and memory. Researchers Elizabeth Parker, Larry Cahill and James L. McGaugh spent more than five years studying about this 40-year-old woman. She was given the code name “AJ” to protect her identity, and when asked a question specific about a certain date, she can recall what she was doing, what day of the week it fell on, what the weather was like and any news that she may have followed that day.
AJ came into contact with McGaugh in 2000, explaining her mind-blowing ability, saying she “can take a date, between 1974 and today, and tell you what day it falls on, what I was doing that day and if anything of importance occurred on that day.
The reason this case is so unique is because most people who have extraordinary memories use mnemonic devices, which are memory aids such as rhymes or visual imagery to create associations among facts. In contrast, AJ uses deeply personal things like relations in her own life as well as events that interest her. She explains it as, “a movie in her mind that never stops”.
University of California - Irvine. (2006, March 14). Researchers identify new form of superior memory syndrome. Retrieved from http://www.nootropics.com/hyperthymestic/index.html

Post # 10 - Alternate Sleep Cycles

Your parents have told you your whole life, “Your body needs to get 8 hours of sleep! Go to bed!” However, getting 6-8 hours of sleep, waking in the morning and staying awake for 16-18 hours is one of the five major sleep cycles. This one is called theMonophasic.png monophasic cycle, and the other four are considered polyphasic because of the number of naps taken over the course of the day. Is this even possible? We’ll explore our options.

The most important part of every sleep cycle is the Stage 5 REM (Rapid Eye Movement) sleep, which provides many benefits of sleep to the brain, possibly more than all other stages. When transitioning from a monophasic cycle to a polyphasic cycle, the body is tricked because of the lack of sleep into entering REM sleep immediately when going to bed instead of 45 to 75 minutes later like you would on a monophasic sleep. This results in a person being able to have all the benefits of an eight-hour sleep but without wasting all that time in a day getting into a REM cycle. That way, the person has a much more efficient sleep cycle.

The polyphasic cycles:

Uberman.pngUBERMAN CYCLE: 20 to 30 minute naps every 4 hours, resulting in 6 naps each day. The uberman cycle is highly efficient, and usually results in feeling healthy, feeling refreshed upon waking and extremely vivid dreams. Many people who tired this type of cycle reported positive results, but because of people’s busy schedules, they could not miss a nap without being extremely tired.

Everyman.pngEVERYMAN CYCLE: One longer “core” nap that is supplemented with several 20-30 minute naps. Usually the person would have a 3-hour nap and then three twenty minute naps; or have a 1½-hour nap with four to five 20-minute naps in the day. These both equal the same amount of sleep time, it just offers much more flexibility in when you choose to nap and if you need to skip, its not so detrimental. It is very efficient type of sleeping, only using 3-4 hours per day.

Dymaxion.pngDYMAXION CYCLE: The most extreme cycle created by Bucky Fuller is based on his belief that we have two energy tanks, the first is easy to replenish whereas the second tank (second wind) is much harder to replenish. He began sleeping for 30 minutes every 6 hours. A grand total of 2 hours a day! Doctors checked him out and reported him to be healthy, and Bucky said that he felt great. This is the most effective polyphasic cycle.


BIPHASIC CYCLE: Achieved by most university students in North America as well as the grade 11 level one Biology students in Mrs. Holyoke’s class. The biphasic cycle consists of sleeping for 4-4.5 hours at night, and then taking a 1½-hour nap around noon.

Thinking of switching to one of these lifestyles? To make the right decision, consider what you do each day, and with summer approaching, you could potentially have 22 hours a day to do whatever you please! By switching to either the Dymaxion or Uberman cycle, you will be a complete zombie for around 3 to 10 days while your body adjusts to the cycle. It’s all about conditioning the body!

Here are some additional tips:
- Eat healthy, avoid fatty foods and the adjustment will be much easier.
- Make sure you have a project to work on during all of your new awake hours as it makes the time go by faster.
- Make sure you have two or three weeks of freedom to adjust to the cycle so that you don’t go to work or school completely dead from sleep deprivation.
- Hang in there. Each of the cycles will get exponentially easier all of the sudden after the first 2 weeks or so. Just be patient and diligent! Don’t skip naps or change your nap times around or you will basically have to start your adjustment period over.
- Use natural cues for being woken up from naps like sunlight and loud music, while using darkness and silence for sleep.

Lejuwaan, J. (2010). Alternative sleep cycles: you don’t really need 6-8 hours! Retrieved from http://www.highexistence.com/alternate-sleep-cycles/

Post #11 - Caño Cristales

rainbow-river-18.jpgThe river of five colors,” “the river that ran away from paradise,” and "the most beautiful river in the world." This is what locals call the Caño Cristales, or the Crystal River. This wonderland is found in a remote area, south of the mountain chain Macarena, Colombia, and flows eastward 100 km before joining into the main water body, the Guayabero River. This spectacular sight can be seen glowing with five colors, yellow, blue, green, black and red, throughout only a few weeks between the months of September and November.

For most of the year, a dull green moss covers the rocks, however, for a short period of time each year, the river explodesrainbow-river-13.jpg and transitions to one of the most beautiful places on earth. These colors are a waste product of many mosses and algae; what color is produced depends on the time of year, color saturation, or whether it’s weakened or strengthened. A unique species of plants, Macarenia clavigera, is what turns a brilliant red. Surrounding are splotches of yellow and green sand, blue water, and a thousand shades in between.
Macarenia clavigera

During the wet season, the bottom of the river is obscured by the fast flow of the water and its depth, which disables the unique plant to grow because it does not get enough sunlight. During the dry season there is not enough water to support all of the different colors that need to arise. So, that is why the rainbow only appears a certain time of the year.

Photo Source. (2008). Crystal river - the most beautiful river on earth. Retrieved from http://www.openfreak.com/crystal-river-the-most-beautiful-river-on-earth/

Retorno, D, & Doyer, T. (2009). CaÑo cristales. Retrieved from http://atlasobscura.com/place/cano-cristales

Author Unknown. (2009, December 23). The Cano Cristales – River of rainbow in Colombia. Retrieved from http://planetoddity.com/the-cano-cristales-river-of-rainbow-in-colombia/

I thought I would add this picture in because there are some pretty interesting facts about the brain!