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Anton Van Leeuwenhoek

Anton Van Leeuwenhoek was born in Delft, where as a child he received education and went on to become an apprentice in a linen-draper shop. He was seen as someone that would have no scientific input, but after reading Robert Hooke Micrographia, Leeuwenhoek became inspired and started to take up microscopy.
I believe that Leeuwenhoek should get some of the credit for the first microscope, because he was the first person to actually view something that was magnified more than 20x or 30x with his microscope. But he certainly shouldn’t be considered as the very first person to have invented the microscope, because he wasn’t and sure he contributed a lot to it but overall he was inspired by Robert Hooke who had already seen cells through a microscope.

39-a-antony-van-leeuwenhoek-1632-1723.jpgAnton Van Leeuwenhoek contributed a lot to the field of science. Such as the first microscope that could magnify an object 200x. He also made a lot of discoveries about cells and different organisms, such as bacteria, free-living parasitic microscopic protists, sperm cells, blood cells, microscopic nematodes and rotifers, and a whole lot more.

Ford, B. J. 1991. The Leeuwenhoek Legacy. Biopress, Bristol, and Farrand Press, London. http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/history/leeuwenhoek.html


Apoptosis is a programmed cell death, and is a normal component in the development and health of multicellular organisms. It's a controlled process in whichapoptosis.jpg
the body tells the cell to kill its self, unlike other ways where the cells continue to die and can cause serious health problems. When the cell receives a specific signal, they
produce caspases which are a protein that start to breakdown cellular components that are needed for normal cellular function. Caspases can also activate other enzymes
such as DNases which breakdown the DNA in the nucleus.

Dash, P,D. (n.d.). Apoptosis. Retrieved from http://www.sgul.ac.uk/depts/immunology/~dash/apoptosis/

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Snottites are living formations of bacteria found only in one cave in southern Mexico, called Cueva de Villa Luz.

So this Snottites look like stalactites that hang from the caves ceiling. Theses are special bacteria because of what they feed

off of; they feed off of poisonous hydrogen sulfide fumes that scientist believe come from nearby oil field or volcano's.

Snottites also work as their own little chemistry labs, because when they take in the hydrogen sulfide fumes as a source of

food, they produce very powerful acidic sulfuric acid. When it produces sulfuric acid it helps the cave create new habitats by eroding

the rock and making more space for organisms to live

Rivera, R, R. (2000). Snot-tites. Retrieved from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1590/is_n1_v55/ai_21169671/?tag=content;col1

The giant freshwater ray
Himantura chaophraya also known as the giant freshwater stingray, is the largest freshwater fish on the planet and it can weigh somewhere
around 1000 lbs. It inhabits some of the most remote waters in the world including the Mekong, Maeklong, Ban Pakong, Chaophraya, Tachin and Tapi
rivers in Tailand. It's one of the largest living Dasyatids family of fish left on earth. It belongs to the same class as sharks and other ray Chondrichthyes.
These rays are armed with two venomous barbs on the base of their tails; there is no known antidote for their venom, because they are so understudied.
The largest recorded freshwater ray weighed between 550 and 990 lbs, measuring 6.6 feet wide and 6.9 feet long.

"Fish Species > Giant Freshwater Stingray." Fishsiam. FishSiam Co, Ltd., 2011. Web. 29 May 2011. <http://www.fishsiam.com/giant-freshwater-stingray.html>.

Microbe power
There has been a breakthrough by scientists at the University of East Anglia, the breakthrough is about how we may be able to use microbes to generate
electricity. The research shows for the first time the structure of proteins that enables bacterial cells to transfer electrical charge. With this discovery it means that
scientists will start to look for way to use it. They've started to try and attach bacteria to an electrode, to create microbial fuel cells or bio-batteries. They are also
thinking that they'll be able to create a microbe-based agent that will help clean oil spills or uranium pollution.

University of East Anglia (2011, May 25). Using microbes to generate electricity?. ScienceDaily. Retrieved May 29, 2011, http://www.sciencedaily.com/release


Radiation's affect on gender
Ionising radiation is a danger to the human population, but with exposure it has had some other affects like affecting the gender of babies. There was a new study
done by Hagen Scherb and Kristina Voigt, that after the Chernobyl accident, the radiation has had a long-term negative effect on the ratio of male to female births. Ionizing
radiation is known to have mutagenic properties so it's likely to have detrimental reproductive effects. They think that exposure causes men to father more sons and mothers
to give birth to more girls. A scientific analysis shows an increase in male birth in Europe and the US between 1964-1975, they believe it's due to the atomic bomb test fallout.

"Nuclear radiation affects baby gender." Biology News Net. Biology News Net, 26/ 05/2011. Web. 29 May 2011. http://www.biologynews.net/archives/2011/05/26/nuclear_radiation_affects_baby_gender.html.

Invasion in the Mediterranean
New kinds of fish have started to invade the Mediterranean Sea; there is an estimated 900 new species of fish that have moved into the Mediterranean Sea in just the last decade. The reason behind the invasion of new species is due to the Suez Canal that was built in 1869; this canal opened the waters ways for numerous new species of fish to invade. With the invasion of new fish to the Mediterranean Sea, it has started to upset the natural balance; it has started to change the food chain and many other things along with it.

Mediterranean Sea invaded by alien species. (2011, May 24). Retrieved from http://www.biologynews.net/archives/2011/05/24/mediterranean_sea_invaded_by_alien_species.html

Nanopatch for the heart

Heart attacks are a serious health risk for many people in today’s society, and whenever you have a heart attack it leaves dead tissue, which in turns makes you more prone to having another heart attack. Researchers at the University of Brown have created a material that can help; it’s a scaffold-like structure that is made from carbon nanofibers and a polymer. The test that they taken show that the nanopatch regenerates natural heart tissue cells called cardiomyocytes. If used this could help millions, because a third of females and a fifth of males after having their first heart attack will have another in six years.

Researchers create nanopatch for the heart. (2011, May 19). Retrieved from http://www.biologynews.net/archives/2011/05/19/researchers_create_nanopatch_for_the_heart.html

Zombie ants
Zombie ants are very special ants; they are produced when a tropical carpenter ant that lives up in the rainforest canopy gets infected by a parasitic fungus called
Ophiocordyceps unilateralis. Once infected the fungus begins to take over the body of its host ant by affecting its muscles. The fungus then grows to fill the ant's body and
head, causing the ants muscle fibers to separate, the fungus also affects the ant's nervous system. After the ant has become fully infected, the fungus makes the ant fall to the
rainforest floor, where the fungus thrives in the moist conditions.

Zombie ants have fungus on the brain. (2011, May 9). Retrieved from http://www.biologynews.net/archives/2011/05/09/zombie_ants_have_fungus_on_the_brain.html

How spiders breathe under water

There is a quite interesting species of spiders that are unique in the way that they can actually breathe under water with the help of a special pocket of air; it's called6a00d83451901a69e20105369429ab970c-800wi.jpg
the diving bell spider or Argyroneta aquatica. What made this spiders so interesting to scientists are that they bring tiny pockets of air down to the bottom of lakes, where
they spend most of their life and even lay their eggs in the water. What scientists were trying to see was how they breathe and how long they can stay under water for. So
what they found was that they spin a web to encase air in a bubble so that they could breathe, what they found was they used diffusion to bring more air from the surrounding
water. They also found how long they could breathe under water, because their bubble of air gets smaller due to the nitrogen in the air , so the scientist figure out that they could
last up to an hour.

The diving bell and the water spider: how spiders breathe under water. (2011, June 9). Retrieved from http://www.biologynews.net/archives/2011/06/09/the_diving_bell_and_the_water_spider_

Bacteria mimics' proteins

Bacteria are getting smarter all the time, in recent studies they have found bacteria that are able to get pasted are immune system without use ever knowing. This process is known as
molecular mimicry, thesis sometimes deadly bacterial pathogens may take the form of protein as a way to develop a resistant against antibiotics. This somewhat explains why some
bacterial pathogens were easily treated before and are now becoming harder to treat. The way that scientist were able to find this is through genomes, and what they found was
methyltransferase, which is a enzyme that transfers a methyl group from a donor( protein structures) to an acceptor( bacterial pathogen), and they found that in a couple of bacterial pathogens.

Deadly bacteria may mimic human proteins to evolve antibiotic resistance. (2011, June 1). Retrieved from http://www.biologynews.net/archives/2011/06/01/deadly_bacteria_may_mimic_human_proteins_to_evolve_antibiotic_resistance.html

Gut types

Could you imagine if one day you had to go to the doctors and not only did they ask you the general stuff about, but then proceed to ask what your gut type is? Scientist at the European
Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) has found after studying the feces of many different people that there are three different gut types. Gut types all depend on the different colonies of
bacteria that live in your intestines, theses gut types can be influenced by your weight, age, and the way are bodies distinguish between friendly and harmful bacteria. Gut types can be a way
to detect the likelihood of someone contracting a particular disease like colo-rectal cancer.

what's your gut type?. (2011, April 20). Retrieved from http://www.biologynews.net/archives/2011/04/20/whats_your_gut_type.html