BIOLOGY 111

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#1. Infectious Mononucleosis
Mononucleosis, also called as mono, is a virus that can leave you feeling tired and weak for weeks or months. You can cure this by having lots of rest and good-self care. Also you could gargle with salt water or use throat lozenges to soothe your sore throat. And tried to avoid contact sports, or heavy lifting. Your spleen may be enlarged, and impact or straining could cause it to burst.
Mono is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus. It is most often seen in adolescents and young adults. Older adults usually don't get mono, because they have immunity to the virus. However, children can get this virus, but it often goes unnoticed, because their symtoms are mild. Mono has earned nickname the " Kissing disease", because the virus could spread through kissing. Mono can be spread through contact with saliva, mucus, and sometimes tears. If you have mono you can prevent passing this virus by not sharing things, such as drinking glasses, toothbrushes, or kissing anyone.
As soon as you get over mono, your symtoms will go away for good. However, you will always carry the virus that caused it. The most symtoms of this virus is high fever, a severe sore throat, swollen glands and tonsils, and weakness and fatique. These symtomps usually start about 4 to 6 weeks after you are exposed to mono.
external image 800px-Infectious_Mononucleosis_3.jpg
Reference:
© 1995-2010 Healthwise, Incorporated. Healthwise, Healthwise for every health decision, and the Healthwise logo are trademarks of Healthwise, Incorporated. Last updated: September 08, 2009
http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/infectious-mononucleosis-topic-overview



Post #2


Apoptosis

Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is a normal component of the development of and health of multicellular organisms. We also call it as a cellular suicide. These changes include blebbing, loss of cell membrane asymmetry and attachment, cell shrinkage, nuclear fragmentation, chromatin condensation, and chromosomal DNA fragmentation. This is a normal process in human body, and it is for regeneration of new cells. Also this process is very important in human body. Between 50 to 70 billion cells die each day due to the apoptosis in the average human adult.






















Reference:
Apoptosis. (2011, Feb 16). Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apoptosis

Post #3

Caloric Restriction and Aging



Sixty years ago scientists at Cornell University made an extraordinary discovery. Clive. M. Mcay and his colleagues placed rats on a very low calorie diet, and extended outer limit of animal's life span by 33 percent, 3 years to 4 years. They observed that the rats on low-calorie diets stayed youthful longer and suffered less late-life diseases than did their normally fed counterparts. Since the 1930's caloric restriciton has been the only intervention shown convincingly to slow aging in rodents(mammals, like human) and in creatures ranging from single-celled protozoans to roundworms, fruit flies and fish.

Reference:
Caloric restriction and aging. (1996). Scientific American Magazine, 7. Retrieved from http://www.sciamdigital.com/index.cfm?fa=Products.ViewIssuePreview&ARTICLEID_CHAR=F0616DBF-073E-4A3B-8D68-1385E61DB9C





Post # 4



Tan or Burn



Skin must protect itself from sun's ultraviolet radiation, which can cause premature aging, and cancers. Sunburn occurs when strong UV rays harm cells in the skin's outermost layer, the epidermis. Blood vessels in deeper layers dilate, and turning skin red; a sunburn. Regular exposure causes the epidermis to produce more melanin pigment in an attempt to absorb UV rays. Tan occurs if enought melanin accumulates, the skin darkens. Dark-skinned people have more melanin than light-skinned people and they don't burn readily; takes more time.
Sunscreen can help us to protect our skin from sun's ultraviolet radiation. Active chemicals in sunscreen filter UV rays, slowing injury and thus the sunburn and tanning reactions. Sunscreens are labeled with a SPF. SPF stands for sun protection factor. Say that skin begins to burn after 10 mins of exposure. When it says SPF 15 on a sunscreen, a comparable burn will take 15 times as long. A SPF 30 sunscreen will take 30 times as long. However, according to J, Frank Nash, a principal scientist at Procter & Gamble. Yet a typical beachgoer lathers up at perhaps half that concentration, having protection. And Nash says no compound can fully stop the UV penetration; there is no such thing as sunblock.
external image images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQpERB5ARja5lllznO3fFNlC4UfHCMYSFQx33_OUfN8tMfN0zoo&t=1external image sunscreen_full.jpg

Reference:
Fischetti, M. (n.d.). Tan or burn. How Things Work, (2), Retrieved from http://www.sciamdigital.com/index.cfm?fa=Products.ViewIssuePreview&ARTICLEID_CHAR=80FB9204-2B35-221B-683580905AD23491
Retreived from : http://dgfvbd.110mb.com/
Retreived from: http://www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?t=804904&page=3


Post # 5

Ebola

Ebola is fliovirus named after a river in Zaire, its first site of discovery. This fliovirus is usually fatal, and it affects monkeys, apes, and humans. Flioviruses are sting-shaped, with a tiny hook, or loop at one end. Another fliovirus is Marbug virus, which gives similar symptoms to Ebola, but has the higher chance of surviving from the infection. There are 4 strains of Ebola virus: Ebola Zaire, Ebola Sudan, Ebola Reston, and Ebola Tai,
The symptoms of this virus is very nasty. It begins with fever and muscle aches. Depending on the particular virus, disease can progress until the patient becomes very ill with respiratory problems, severe bleeding, kidney problems, and shock. With Ebola, persons develop fever, chills, loss of appetite, headaches, muscle aches. As the disease progress, vomiting, bloody diarrhea, abdominal pain, sore throat, and chest pain can occur. Also the blood fails to clot and patients bleed from injection sites as well as into the gastrointestinal tract, skin, and internal organs. So basically, that patient bleed from every orifice.
You can avoid from catching it by avoid cantact with bodily fluids or infected people, and don't go to a country or a place where there is an outbreak, or a history of outbreaks. If you have to go there, you should bring a facial shield, surgical masks and eye protection.
Unfortunately, there is no vaccine or cure for this virus. So... you are basically dead if you get this virus.

ebola virus picture
ebola virus picture
















Reference:
Russell, B. (2006). Ebola. What is Ebola, 1. Retrieved from http://www.brettrussell.com/personal/efaq.html
Retreived from: http://www.brettrussell.com/personal/ebola.html



Post # 6

Elephantiasis


Lymphatic filariasis, also known as Elephantiasis, is best known of people with disgustingly enlarged or swollen arms and legs. This disease is caused by parastic worms, including Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and B. Timori, they are all transmitted by mosquitoes. Elephantiasis disease is currently affects 120 million of people worldwide, and 40 million of them are seriously diseased. It happenes when female mosquito bites a person, it may inject the worm larvae, called microfilariae, into the blood. The microfilariae will dramatically spread throughout in the bloodstream, where they can live for many years. Often symptoms will not appear until years after the infection. As the parasites accumulate in the blood vessels, they can restrict circulation and cause fluid to build up in surrounding tissues. The most common, visible signs of infections are excessively enlarged legs, arms, genitalia, and breasts.

Ostracised: Huang Chuancai's case of elephantiasis of the face is considered the world's worst. (Reuters TV)
Ostracised: Huang Chuancai's case of elephantiasis of the face is considered the world's worst. (Reuters TV)


Reference:
10 weirdest diseases. (2006, May 11). Elephantiasis, 1, Retrieved from http://www.oddee.com/item_84847.aspx
Retreived from: http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2008/01/07/2133371.htm


Post # 7

Nomura's Jellyfish

Nomura's Jellyfish also known as the Echizen kurage by the Japanese, is the largest jellyfish that exist in the planet. The width of this is slightly larger than a height of a fully grown man. It can grow up to about 2.20M and weight about (220kg). These jellyfish can be found in the Japan Sea. The sting of this giant jellyfish is rather painful but not toxic enough to cause serious harm to humans. However, there have been reports that the sting has cuased build-up of fluid inside the lungs. Although the reported number of human injuries is low, but a few unlucky swimmers have been killed by this monster. Their population is on the rise in the fishing waters and it is a huge problem to the fishermen because a large number of Nomura's jellyfish gets caught in their nets. The cause for greater concern is that they poison their fish they caught with their toxic stingers or crush them to death. And often break nets due to their heavy weight. Since the issue was so serious in 2005/2006, Japan has led the government to form a committee to solve this problem. The coastal communites in Japan are now trying to promote the jellyfish as the novelty food whici is sold dried and salted. It is reported that collagen extracted from jellyfish is very beneficial to the skin, and the Anglers have found out that they also make awesome crab food and fertillizer.

Photo: Diver tagging Nomura's jellyfish
Photo: Diver tagging Nomura's jellyfish

Reference:

Sinha, S., & Dickerson, N. (n.d.). Nomura's jellyfish. Retrieved from http://www.jellyfishfacts.net/nomuras-jellyfish.html

Retrieved from http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2006/01/0119_060119_jellyfish.html


Post # 8

Bristle Worm

Bristle worm is the most dangerous speciees of worm. Bristle worms are segmented carrying a pair of bristle in each section. These worms bite bite whenever handled, and bristle can also penatrate and sting the skin. Bristle worms mostly found under rocks and corals in tropical climates. Their range in size are vary from small (1 inch) to very large at about 20 inch in length. Most small ones are an orange color, sometime appearing two -tone in color. Larger bristle worms are frequently gray or brownish in color. If you have handled this worm, then you will most likely feel pain if it bites you. The symptoms are common to any type of sting ranging from inflammation, burning, swelling, numbeness, redness, and extreme or intense pain. You can treat a sting right away by applying a topical acetic like vinegar or alcohol. Also you can remove the bristle with tweezers or tape. If the inflammation and burning are getting worse, then you can apply a hydrocortisone cream three times a day. If the sting becomes infected with puss and over swelling then you can apply a topical antibiotic ointment. These will insure full recovery.




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Bristle Worm
Bristle Worm


Reference:
Bailey, B. (2007, Feb 28). Bristleworm: the dangreous worm [Web log message]. Retrieved from http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/158469/bristleworm_the_dangerous_worm_.html?cat=5










Post # 9

Zombies!


Do you like movies where zombies kill everyone and turn them into other zombies and take over the world and later on the hero blows up the bomb ? The zombies reanimated corpses lumbers toward the farmhouse, shopping mall, streets, army base, etc where heroes have barricaded themselves (Coward). It happes in every zombie movies! The zombies aren't dead, but they should be. They don't feel pain, and they continue to attack even after losing their limbs and such. It's funny that anyone that zombies kill returns as a zombie. So they quickly evovle from a nuisance to a plague. It sucks. Zombies are common in Haitian stories and folklore. Zombies are brought back to life by the sorcerer, and they are mindless slaves. They are not self aware and are not particularly dangerous unless fed salt (weird?), which restores their senses. The researchers found that often alleged zombies had recieved little or no medical care before their deaths. In 1980, a man appeared in a rural Haitian village. he clamied to be a zombie, who had died in Albert Schweitzer Hospital in Deschapelles, Haiti on May 2nd. He described being conscious but paralyzed during his presumed death. He had even seen the docter cover his face with a sheet. He clamied that the sorcerer brought him back to the life. So the scientist brought him in the lab and tested him some questions. He answered all the questions about his family and childhood that not even his best friend could have known. Eventually, his family and friends agreed that he was a zombie returned to life.

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Reference:
Wilson, T. How zombies work [Web log message]. Retrieved from http://science.howstuffworks.com/science-vs-myth/strange-creatures/zombie.htm

Post # 10

The White Shark



The White shark is also commonly known as the great what shark. It is a solitary predator that can grow up to 6.6 meters (about 21 feet) in length. Although this is just the largest confirmed report of a white shark, but indirect evidence suggests that there may be specimens off of soutern Australia which can grow up to 8 meteres in length! The white shark is a robust, torpedo-shaped shark. The upper and lower lobes of the caudal fin are about even in size, and its serrated triangular teeth are virtually symmetrical. Despite its name the white shark is only white on its underside; the top of the shark is grey to black or blue. The white shark preys up on marine mammals, and fishes. Such as salmon, hake, halibut, mackerel and tunas; for mammals: harbor seals, and harbor porpoises. However, they also eat other sharks, sea turtles, and may also feed on dead whale carcasses. The white sharks are ovoviviporous, and usually give birth to 4 to 14 live pups, and may only reproduce 4 to 6 litters in their life time. They reach sexual maturity about an age of 10 to 12. They can be usually find in coastal or off the shore waters of the continental shelf. They have few distinguishing characteristics: serrated triangular teeth, lobes of caudal fin of about equal size, caudal keel, black spot may be present at axil of pectoral fin, lunate tail.



external image greatwhite1.jpg

Reference:
Mojetta, A. (1997). The great white shark. Great White Shark, Retrieved from http://www.new-brunswick.net/new-brunswick/sharks/species/greatwhite.html



Post # 11

10 World's Weirdest Insects

1) Giant Walking Stick:
Longest insect in the world, with the length of 15 inch. It can easily break off its legs to get away from the predators. Also his legs can regenerate pretty fast.

external image walking-stick-www.bexar-tx.tamu_.edu_.jpg

2) Hercules Beetle:
The shell is soooo strong, that it can support 850 times of its own weight! It's a vegetarian, and only lives in South America.

external image hercules-www.uk_.ask_.com_-1024x696.jpg

3) Cave Glowworm:
It is found in New Zealand. It looks more like a mosquito rather than a worm.

external image glowworm-www.derick-lisa.blogspot.com_.jpg

4) African Bat Bug:
The male African Bat Bug stabs female's abdomen to inject the sperm directly into the blood.

external image bat_bug-www.greenearthfacts.com_.jpg

5) Jungle Nymph:
It has a strange life cycle. After the 15 months long laying eggs, it sheds its exoskeleton 5 or 6 times and each time it does its called an instar stage. These can be found in Australia.

external image JungleNymph-www.whozoo.org_.jpg

6) Twisted Wing Parasite:
It is a real parasite. The larva climbs onto a flower and waits for another insect to climb on, then it burrows onto its body, feed with his blood and organs.

external image twist-wing-www.ambericawest.com_.jpg

7) Bullent Ant:
Single bite of this ant is so painful that is compared to bullet. It can cause trembling, burning, perspiration, throbbing, and sometimes paralysis that lasts about 24 hours. It lives in rainforest in Amazon basin.

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8) Orchid Mantis:
It looks nice for insect standards, so it when it’s settled onto a flower it is almost invisible due to the beautiful colors and all it has to do is wait for other delicious insects to come along.

external image orchid-mantis-www.psychiccrimefighter.com_-1024x786.jpg

9) Amazon Tree Ant:
They construct a trap in the tree to capture the preys. When preys fall into the trap, then they break off the legs of prey and other parts of body, and share it with other members.

external image ant-trap-www.flickr.com_.jpg

10) Goliath Beetles:
This is a very large insect. The funny thing is that many people enjoy them as pets..........(what the...) They feed them with dog food, although fruits are their favourite in natural habitat.

external image Goliath-www.dekvanzclub.in_.th.jpg


Reference:
Mandee, T. (2011, March 6). 10 world's weirdest insects. Retrieved from http://urbantitan.com/10-worlds-weirdest-insects/



Post # 12

Ten Weirdest New Animals of 2010

1) T.Rex Leech:
It was discovered in Peruvian Amazon in April. It can grow up to 3 inch long, and has large teeth,like its dinosaur namesake, Tyrannosaurus.

A picture of the T. rex leech Tyrannobdella rex, one of the top ten new species of 2010
A picture of the T. rex leech Tyrannobdella rex, one of the top ten new species of 2010


2) Purple Octopus:
Found in July in off Canada's Atlantic Coast. The 20-day expedition aimed to uncover relationships between cold-water coral and other bottom-dwelling creatures in a pristine yet "alien" environment,

 A picture of a deep-sea octopus found during a recent expedition off Newfoundland -- possibly a new species
A picture of a deep-sea octopus found during a recent expedition off Newfoundland -- possibly a new species


3) Yoda Bat:
This tube-nosed fruit bat found in Papua New Guinea. Like other fruit bats, though, it disperses seeds from the fruit in its diet, perhaps making the flying mammal crucial to its tropical rain forest ecosystem.


Picture of a tube-nosed fruit bat found in Papua New Guinea.
Picture of a tube-nosed fruit bat found in Papua New Guinea.


4) Ninja Slug:
It has the tail that is three times the length of its head. It shoots its mate with "love darts" made of calcium carbonate and spiked with hormones.That's where it got its name.

Picture of a "ninja" slug, one of more than 120 new species on Borneo reported by WWF on Earth Day's 40th anniversary
Picture of a "ninja" slug, one of more than 120 new species on Borneo reported by WWF on Earth Day's 40th anniversary


5) Sneezing Snub - Nosed Monkey
Found in Myanmar is so snub-nosed that rainfall is said to makes it sneeze. The problem is that these monkeys have been killed by its local hunters.

A snub-nosed monkey.
A snub-nosed monkey.


6) Wood - Eating Catfish:
Found in Amazon rain forest feeds on fallen tree in the Santa Ana River in Peru in 2006. They use their unique teeth to scrape organic material from the surfaces of submerged wood.

Picture of a new species of armored, wood-eating catfish captured in the Amazon River Basin.
Picture of a new species of armored, wood-eating catfish captured in the Amazon River Basin.


7) The Simpsons Toad:
Found in western Colombia. Its long, pointy, snoutlike nose reminds the character of Mr. Burns form the "Simpson".

New species of beaked toad found in Colombia resembles Mr. Burns from The Simpsons (picture)
New species of beaked toad found in Colombia resembles Mr. Burns from The Simpsons (picture)



8) Self - Cloning Lizard:
This is a popular food on Vietnamese. There are only female for this species, because female species reproduces via cloning, without the need for male lizards.


The self-cloning lizard Leiolepis ngovantrii.
The self-cloning lizard Leiolepis ngovantrii.


9) Squid Worm:
It uses paddles for swimming and tentacles on its head. So they just decided to name it squid worm. They found in 2.8 km below the sea.

Picture of a squidworm -- one of the best photos from the Census of Marine Life, which concluded Monday after finding more than 6,000 new species.
Picture of a squidworm -- one of the best photos from the Census of Marine Life, which concluded Monday after finding more than 6,000 new species.


10) Pink Hand Fish:
It uses its fins to walk, rather than swim.

 A file picture of a pink handfish in Australia, now recognized as a new species.
A file picture of a pink handfish in Australia, now recognized as a new species.


Reference:

Catherine, I. (2010, December 7). Ten weirdest new animal. Retrieved from http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2010/12/photogalleries/101207-top-ten-weird-new-animals-2010/#ng_comments